Politics in Angola
Angola has adopted a new constitution in 2010 but Angola has not always had the most fair government. Today there is a President of Angola and they are considered the Head of State as well as the Head of the Government. There is a Multi Party Political System. In Angola the Executive Power is run by the government. The Legislative Power sits with the President, Government as well as Parliament. Many years ago Angola was a one party nation that was ruled by the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or the MPLA. This system has been in place since Angola was first declared independent in 1975.
According to the new Angola constitution, the President has the majority of the power of the nation. They do carry Elections for the National Assembly every 5 years but the President is named the leader automatically of the winning party or coalition. The President can appoint or dismiss the flowing government officials
- Members of Government including State Ministers, Ministers, State Secretaries and Vice Ministers
- Members of the Supreme Court
- Members of the Constitutional Court
- Governors of all of the Provinces
- National Security Council
And a whole lot more. The President is also given powers that allow him or her to define the policies of the country. They can also make edicts or promulgate the laws but they have no say in creating any laws. The President as we mentioned is the leader of the winning party but the only important post that is not appointed by the President is the Vice President, the VP is elected as the second person in the winning party.
The President has power over all of Angola, which has 18 provinces. The Legislative Branch of the Government has 223 members; these members are elected for a term of 4 years. 130 members by the proportional representation, 90 members in provincial district and there are 3 members that represent the Angolans abroad.
The new constitution is similar to the kind they have for Africa and Botswana. The President is now limited to two 5 year terms however the term would not count the 30 year term that is currently being served by Dos Santos but they would start from the Parliamentary Elections starting in 2012, this however would allow Dos Santos to remain as President until 2022.
Though the new constitution does favor the MPLA the leader of the UNITA party Alda Juliana Paulo Sachiambo believes that the new constitution does provide Dos Santos too much power. The new constitution also provides Angola with a defense policy. It does prohibit the foreign military bases on Angolan soil or affiliation with any other military organization. The constitution also states that Cabinda which is considered an exclave of Angola and is fun by FLEC separatists as now being part of Angola. With all of the progress that Angola has made, it still ranks in 18 top most corrupt countries according Transparency International.